Mathews Journal of Nutrition & Dietetics


Current Issue Volume 7, Issue 2 - 2024

Elimination/Neutralization of COVID-19 Vaccine-Produced Spike Protein: Scoping Review

Steven Petrosino1-3*, Nyona Matende4

Pennsylvania State University, USA

LaSalle University, USA,

Walden University, USA

Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI)

*Corresponding Author: Steven Petrosino, Pennsylvania State University, LaSalle University, and Walden University, USA; Email: [email protected]

Received Date: January 23, 2024

Publication Date: April 12, 2024

Citation: Petrosino S, et al. (2024). Elimination/Neutralization of COVID-19 Vaccine-Produced Spike Protein: Scoping Review. Mathews J Nutr Diet. 7(1):34.

Citation: Petrosino S, et al. © (2024)


This review investigates the long-term sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein persistence following COVID-19 vaccination, its immunopathology, its impact on host immunity, and potential strategies for its neutralization or elimination. The urgency with which vaccines were required at the height of the COVID-19 pandemic led to a failure to consider the adverse long-term effects of the spike-protein in the mRNA vaccines developed by leading manufacturers. The present review study was completed in eight-stage PRISMAScR procedures. A total of 420 studies were identified for potential inclusion, with a final 40 meeting the criteria for inclusion in the spike protein neutralization, elimination, or removal assessment. Numerous biological molecules, synthetic and natural compounds were found to possess promising spike protein neutralization, elimination or removal properties {Antibodies (monoclonal antibodies at 25%, neutralizing antibodies at 12.5%, egg yolk antibodies at 7.5%, non-neutralizing enzymes at 2.5%); Nanomaterials (liposomes at 5.0%, Encapsulin nanoparticles at 2.5%, polymeric NPs at 2.5%, metalliv NPs at 2.5%); Natural compounds (polyphenols or green tea at 7.5%, Urea at 2.5%); Engineered proteins (DARPins - FSR16m and FSR22 at 2.6%, Nattokinase at 2.5%); Radiation (Low dose radiation therapy at 2.5%); Equipment (Hemopurifier equipment utilizing lectin-affinity plasmapheresis cartridge at 2.5%)}. The supplemental section provides additional compounds reported in grey literature with independently verified potential to neutralize, eliminate or remove spike protein, including vitamin C, vitamin D, Omega 3 (fish oil), curcumin/turmeric, ecinacea, resveratrol, dandelion, and calendula. The supplemental compounds must be used with the direction of a healthcare provider.

Creative Commons License

© 2015 Mathews Open Access Journals. All Rights Reserved.

Open Access by Mathews Open Access Journals is licensed under a
Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Based On a Work at