Mathews Journal of Veterinary Science


Previous Issues Volume 8, Issue 1 - 2024

Review on Toxoplasmosis and Its Status in Ethiopia

Gemechu Negesa1, Isayas Asefa Kebede2,*

1School of Veterinary Medicine, Wolaita Sodo University, Wolaita Sodo, Ethiopia

2School of Veterinary Medicine, Ambo University, Guder, Ethiopia

*Corresponding author: Isayas Asefa Kebede, School of Veterinary Medicine, Ambo University, P.O. Box 19, Guder, Ethiopia, Tel: +251-(09)-11-89-49-73; E-mail: [email protected].

Received Date: February 02, 2024

Published Date: March 18, 2024

Citation: Negesa G, et al. (2024). Review on Toxoplasmosis and Its Status in Ethiopia. Mathews J Vet Sci. 8(1):39.

Copyrights: Negesa G, et al. © (2024).


Toxoplasmosis is a zoonotic infection of animals’ caused by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii, which is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite and cats have a major influence on the epidemiology of the disease. Accordingly, T. gondii is a coccidian parasite with cats as the definitive host, and all warm-blooded animals can be used as intermediate hosts. T. gondii readily infects human beings, and infection is relatively common depending on environmental conditions, age, and immune status. After birth, humans are usually infected with T. gondii by ingestion of oocysts in food or water that have been contaminated with cat feces or by ingestion of tissue cysts. However, before birth, human toxoplasmosis can result from a congenital or acquired infection. The life cycle of T. gondii involves two phases. The sexual phase takes place in the definitive host (Felidae family) and the asexual phase in any warm-blooded animal, including humans and birds. The diagnosis of toxoplasmosis was performed by the isolation of the parasite from patients and by serological tests such as indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The major importance of toxoplasmosis in farm animals is its zoonotic potential. Since cats are key to the transmission of T. gondii as they are the only definitive hosts that shed the oocysts, prevention and control methods should target the Felidae family. Generally, domestic and barn cats should be restricted in farm environments from nesting and defecating in hay, straw mows, grain stores, or other loose piles of livestock feed.

Keywords: Toxoplasma gondii, Toxoplasmosis, Zoonotic importance.

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