Mathews Journal of Psychiatry & Mental Health


Previous Issues Volume 1, Issue 2 - 2016

Research Article Full-Text  PDF  

Cognitive Apprenticeship in Clinical Practice; Can it be Extended to Postgraduate Psychiatry Training Programmes?

Farshad Shaddel1, Marjan Ghazirad2, Denis O'Leary3, Kathleen M Quinlan4, Jonathan Hafferty2, Tomasz Bajorek1

1Consultant Psychiatrist, Berkshire Health NHS Foundation Trust, UK.

2Psychiatry Specialist Registrar, Oxford Deanery, UK.

3Honorary Clinical Tutor, Medical Sciences Division, University of Oxford, UK.

4Head, Educational Development Group, Oxford Learning Institute, UK.

Corresponding Author: Farshad Shaddel, Consultant Psychiatrist, Berkshire Healthcare NHS Foundation Trust, UK,
Tel: 0118 960 5115; E-Mail: [email protected]

Received Date: 25 Jul 2016  
Accepted Date: 30 Jul 2016 
Published Date: 03 Aug 2016

Copyright © 2016 Shaddel F

Citation: Shaddel F, Ghazirad M, O'Leary D, Quinlan KM, et al. (2016). Cognitive Apprenticeship in Clinical Practice; Can it be extended to Postgraduate Psychiatry Training Programmes? Mathews J Psychiatry Ment Health. 1(1):005.



Introduction: Postgraduate psychiatry training occurs in the workplace or situated learning settings. The Cognitive Apprenticeship Model [CAM] was introduced as an instructional model for situated learning. While undergraduate medical students' experience of the model has been tested, to our knowledge there has been no such reports from postgraduate psychiatry training.

Methods: We surveyed 134 Oxford Deanery psychiatry trainees recruited between 2005 and 2013 through an online questionnaire. Respondents identified which CAM components [scaffolding, modelling coaching, articulation, reflection exploration] were the best aspects, and most needing improvement, in their clinical training.

Results: Of 57 respondents, 80% were satisfied with and enjoyed [90%] their training. They recognised all individual CAM components; modelling and coaching were identified as the best methods. Exploration was identified as the one most in need of improvement. The behavioural [modelling, coaching and scaffolding] rather than the cognitive methods were identified as the best aspects of their training [54 v 35%, p < 0.001].

Conclusions: The results extend findings from undergraduate students in suggesting that the CAM is a useful model for training strategies. Greater awareness of the cognitive components may be needed. The training methods could be included as indicators of training quality in national quality assurance surveys.


Cognitive Apprenticeship; Postgraduate Psychiatry Training.

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