Mathews Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology


Previous Issues Volume 2, Issue 1 - 2017

Review Article Full-Text  PDF  

False Positive and False Negative Results in Diagnosis of Helicobacter Pylori Infection Can be Avoided by A Panel of Serum Biomarkers (GastroPanel®)

Kari Syrjänen1, 2*

Corresponding Author: Syrjänen Kar, Department of Clinical Research, Biohit Oyj, Helsinki, Finland. Molecular Oncology Research Center, Barretos Cancer Hospital, Barretos, SP, Brazil, Tel: 358-40-5566810; Email[email protected]

Received Date: 19 Dec 2016 
Accepted Date: 02 Jan 2017  
Published Date: 06 Jan 2017

Copyright © 2017 Syrjänen K

Citation: Syrjänen K (2017). False Positive and False Negative Results in Diagnosis of Helicobacter Pylori Infection Can be avoided by A Panel of Serum Biomarkers (GastroPanel®).Mathews J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2(1): 007.



Helicobacter pylori (HP) management (including diagnosis and therapy) has been exhaustively reviewed in several reports. These reports are unanimous in that several clinical conditions seriously hamper the diagnostic value of the two most commonly used HP tests: 13C-Urea Breath Test (UBT) and Stool Antigen test (SAT), both false-negative and false-positive results being not uncommon. Basically, these false-negative results are due to decreased bacterial loads in the stomach mucosa, and include the following clinical conditions: 1) use of PPI medication; 2) use of antibiotics; 3) bleeding peptic ulcer; 4) atrophic gastritis (AG; with or without intestinal metaplasia); 5) gastric cancer; 6) MALT lymphoma, and 7) partial gastrectomy. Since the late 1990's, it has been well established that UBT also gives false-positive results in cases where urease-producing bacterial species are colonizing an acid-free stomach due to AG or a long term use of proton pump inhibitors (PPI). It is to be emphasized that neither UBT nor SAT (or HP serology) is capable of diagnosing AG, caused by HP infection or autoimmune disease, thus missing the patients at high risk for important clinical sequels of AG: I) gastric cancer (GC), ii) esophageal cancer, iii) vitamin-B12 deficiency (due to malabsorption), and iv) malabsorption of calcium, iron, magnesium and certain medicines.

Conclusion: It is mandatory that these serious limitations (i.e., false-negative results in true disease, false-positives with no HP infection, and failure to diagnose AG) in use of UBT and SAT are properly acknowledged by all laboratories offering these two tests for diagnosis of HP infections. Given that this bacteria is the single most important risk factor of GC, it is time to move a step forward also in the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infections, and start using the test (GastroPanel®, Biohit Oyj, Finland) that is i) free from the shortcoming of the conventional HP tests, and ii) provides an added value by detecting also the other key risk factor of GC, i.e., atrophic gastritis.  


Helicobacter Pylori; Diagnosis; Urea Breath Test; Stool Antigen Test; Diagnostic Errors; False-Negative; False-Positive; Limitations; Serum Biomarkers; Marker Panel; Gastropanel Test; Gastric Cancer; Risk; Atrophic Gastritis.


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