Mathews Journal of Surgery


Current Issue Volume 7, Issue 1 - 2024

Review on Surgical Managements of Urolithiasis in Ruminants

Gebremedhin Yohannes1,*, Semon Tesfay

1Assistance Professor in College of Veterinary Science, Mekelle University, Mekele, Ethiopia

1Veterinary Practitioner, Ethiopia

*Corresponding Author: Gebremedhin Yohannes, Assistance Professor in College of Veterinary Science, Mekelle University, Mekele, Ethiopia; Tel: 2519 14800882; Email: [email protected]

Received Date: March 22, 2024

Publication Date: April 15, 2024

Citation: Yohannes G, et al. (2024). Review on Surgical Managements of Urolithiasis in Rumineants. Mathews J Surg. 7(1):29.

Copyright: Yohannes G, et al. © (2024)


Urolithiasis is the retention of urine subsequent to lodgment of calculi anywhere in the urinary conduct from up to urethral orifice. Urolith formation usually results from a combination of physiological, nutritional, genetic derangements and management factors. Decreased water intake, urinary stasis, altered urine pH, relative lack of inhibitors of crystallization, urinary tract infection, vitamin A deficiency, and high estrogen intake have all been implicated as risk factors. Urolithiasis is mainly attributed to excessive or imbalanced intake of minerals. Urolithiasis occurs not only in steers and bulls; it is also prevalent in heifers and cows but in heifers and cows the urethra is relatively large in diameter and obstruction is of very rare occurrence. Hence, compared to females, the susceptibility of males to obstructive urolithiasis would seem to be due to sexual differences in anatomy, and not to less frequent urolith development in females. The composition of urinary stones varies with geographical location. The basic mineral compositions of urinary calculi are usually varying in different animals. Silica, magnesium ammonium phosphate (phosphatic, struvite), calcium carbonate, and calcium oxylate are the most common types of crystals found in ruminants. The disease results in heavy economic losses to the livestock industry as it is attributed the fifth most prevalent cause of death in feedlot. Obstructive urolithiasis is a serious, potentially fatal condition, most commonly causing symptoms in castrated male animals, but also occurring in breeding males. Surgical management of obstructive urolithiasis is a successful method. The preventive measures focus on reduction of urinary concentration of calculogenic crystalloids; the diet can be adjusted to reduce urinary concentration of causative minerals.

Keywords: Calculi, Obstruction, Ruminant, Surgical management, Urolithiasis

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