Begüm Ögün1, Mevhibe Tamirci2, Mehrad Pournaki3, Şermin TETİK*4
1Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Biochemistry, Marmara University, Istanbul-Turkey
2European University of Lefke, Faculty of Pharmacy, LEFKE, Northern Cyprus, TR-10 Mersin, Turkey
3,4Final International University, Faculty of Pharmacy, Kyrenia via Mersin 10 Turkey, Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus
*Corresponding author: Şermin TETİK, Final International University, Faculty of Pharmacy, Kyrenia via Mersin 10 Turkey, Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, Phone: +90 392 650 6666; Email: [email protected].
Received Date: December 22, 2022
Published Date: January 09, 2023
Citation: Tetik S, et al. (2023). Energy Balance and Management in Sports and Exercise. Mathews J Sports Med. 3(1):03.
Copyrights: Tetik S, et al. © (2023).
Energy balance is the balance between energy intake and energy expenditure. The energy balance has two main components. One of these two components is energy intake and the other is energy expenditure. Macro nutrients (carbohydrates, proteins and fats) are used as energy sources. During energy intake, food intake is also under control of hormones. These ingested nutrients are used in the production or resynthesize of ATP through energy metabolism. The energy released by the breakdown of ATP is used in all metabolic processes that require energy, including muscle contraction. In addition, although vitamins and minerals are not directly involved in energy production, they have functions in some metabolic reactions. Energy is consumed in three ways. One of these is resting metabolic rate, the other is the thermic effect of food, and the other is the energy spent through physical activity. Studies have shown that the energy taken in athletes is insufficient compared to the energy expenditure. Some researchers have stated that some amino acid and herbal supplements have positive effects on athlete performance.
Keywords: Energy Balance in Athletes, Energy Metabolism, Nutrients, Hormones, Dietary Supplements.