Mathews Journal of Immunology & Allergy


Previous Issues Volume 7, Issue 1 - 2023

Assessment of Multidrug Resistant Bacteria in Paper Naira Notes

Iyevhobu KO*,1,2, Babatope Isaac O3,4, Omolumen LE5, Aliemhe CA6, Igbuan Emmanuel A7

1National Open University of Nigeria, Uromi Community Study Centre, Uromi, Edo State, Nigeria

2Lassa Fever Unit, Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital (ISTH) Irrua, Edo State, Nigeria

3Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Edo State, Nigeria

4Department of Haematology, Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital, Irrua, Edo State, Nigeria

5Department of Chemical Pathology, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Edo State, Nigeria

6Department of Biological Sciences, School of Applied Science, Auchi Polytechnic Auchi, Edo State, Nigeria

7Microbiology Laboratory Department, University Hospital of Leicester, United Kingdom

*Corresponding author: Iyevhobu Kenneth Oshiokhayamhe, National Open University of Nigeria, Uromi Community Study Centre, Uromi, Edo State, Nigeria; Email id: [email protected]

Received Date: December 29, 2022

Publication Date: January 17, 2023

Citation: Iyevhobu KO, et al. (2023). Assessment of Multidrug Resistant Bacteria in Paper Naira Notes. Mathews J Immunol Allergy. 7(1):18.

Copyright: Iyevhobu KO, et al. © (2023)


The bacteriological quality of some Nigerian currencies in circulation was investigated for total bacterial count and kinds of bacterial species present. The currency notes studied had high bacterial counts: ranging from 1.5×104 to 3.0×104 cfu/ml. Five bacterial species were isolated: Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus mirabilis, Streptococcus sp. and Klebsiella sp. Escherichia coli and Streptococcus spp were had the highest prevalence in the study (22.5%) while Proteus mirabilis was the least prevalent of the bacterial isolates (15%). The Antibiotic susceptibility pattern suggests that some of the isolates were multiple antibiotic resistant. The health effects of the found organisms are described, and recommendations are given to ensure safe management of the notes. The naira notes are not cleaned or disinfected before being passed from person to person. Therefore, they could serve as channels for the spread of infectious diseases (that is, acts as formites). As a result, there is a high risk of contracting an infection after coming into touch with soiled naira notes. The bacteria's reported multi-drug resistance serves to further highlight the importance of the notes for public health. Our research has demonstrated that the currency in use in Ekpoma may be contributing to the proliferation of bacteria that are resistant to antibiotics. We therefore advise against engaging in behaviors that increase the risk of contracting an infection from handling currency or contamination, and we urge against sloppy hygiene standards when handling currency or immediately after.

Keywords: Money, Naira, Bacteria, Antibiotics, Resistance, Currency, Multidrug

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