Mathews Journal of Cytology and Histology


Previous Issues Volume 7, Issue 1 - 2023

Sickle Cell Diseases May Show Terminal Consequences of the Metabolic Syndrome in Much Earlier Ages

Mehmet Rami Helvaci1,*, Ali Rıza Ozer2, Esra Candan2, Ismihan Sahin2, Abdulrazak Abyad3, Lesley Pocock4

1Specialist of Internal Medicine, MD, Turkey

2Manager of Writing and Statistics, Turkey

3Middle-East Academy for Medicine of Aging, MD, Lebanon

4Medi-WORLD International, Australia

*Corresponding author: Prof Dr. Mehmet Rami Helvaci, MD, Specialist of Internal Medicine, 07400, ALANYA, Turkey, Phone: 00-90-506-4708759; Email: [email protected]

Received Date: March 09, 2023

Published Date: March 30, 2023

Citation: Helvaci MR, et al. (2023). Sickle Cell Diseases May Show Terminal Consequences of the Metabolic Syndrome in Much Earlier Ages. Mathews J Cytol Histol. 7(1):22.

Copyrights: Helvaci MR, et al. © (2022).


Background: Sickle cell diseases (SCDs) are severe inflammatory processes on vascular endothelium, particularly at the capillary level since the capillary system is the main distributor of hardened red blood cells (RBCs) into the tissues. Methods: All patients with SCDs were included. Results: The study included 222 males and 212 females with similar ages (30.8 vs 30.3 years, p>0.05, respectively). Disseminated teeth losses (5.4% vs 1.4%, p<0.001), ileus (7.2% vs 1.4%, p<0.001), cirrhosis (8.1% vs 1.8%, p<0.001), leg ulcers (19.8% vs 7.0%, p<0.001), digital clubbing (14.8% vs 6.6%, p<0.001), coronary heart disease (18.0% vs 13.2%, p<0.05), chronic renal disease (9.9% vs 6.1%, p<0.05), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (25.2% vs 7.0%, p<0.001), and stroke (12.1% vs 7.5%, p<0.05) were all higher, but not acute chest syndrome (2.7% vs 3.7%), pulmonary hypertension (12.6% vs 11.7), deep venous thrombosis and/or varices and/or telangiectasias (9.0% vs 6.6%), and mean age of mortality (30.2 vs 33.3 years) in males (p>0.05 for all). Conclusion: The hardened RBCs-induced capillary endothelial damage, inflammation, edema, and fibrosis are initiated at birth in whole body, and terminate with diffuse tissue hypoxia and multiorgan insufficiencies even in early years of life in SCDs . Although RBCs supports and corticosteroids during emergencies and hydroxyurea therapy during whole lifespan decrease severity of diffuse capillary endothelial inflammation, edema, and fibrosis with some extent, survival shortened in both genders, dramatically. Due to the severe capillary endothelial damage all over the body, SCDs may show terminal consequences of metabolic syndrome in much earlier ages.

Keywords: Sickle Cell Diseases, Metabolic Syndrome, Hardened Red Blood Cells, Capillary Endothelial Inflammation, Capillary Endothelial Fibrosis, Atherosclerosis, Aging.

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