Mathews Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics


Previous Issues Volume 7, Issue 1 - 2023

Ovarian Cancer is the Deadliest of all Gynecological Tumors

Siniša Franjić*

Independent Researcher, Croatia

*Corresponding author: Siniša Franjić, Independent Researcher, Croatia; E-mail: [email protected]

Received Date: January 2, 2023

Publication Date: January 18, 2023

Citation: Franjić S. (2023). Ovarian Cancer is the Deadliest of all Gynecological Tumors. Mathews J Gynecol Obstet. 7(1):22.

Copyright: Franjić S. © (2023)


Ovarian cancer is the seventh most common cancer among women in the world. It accounts for only 4% of all cancers in women, but the devastating information is that it is the deadliest of all gynecological tumors. The reason for this is its late detection in an already advanced stage when treatment options are already very limited. The cause of ovarian cancer is unknown. Among the factors that have an impact on development, the following are important: age, the occurrence of cancer in the family, the reproductive function of a woman, and environmental factors. The symptoms of ovarian cancer are non-specific and often go unrecognized, even though they appear even in the early stages of the disease. Because of this, a large number of cases, even 70%, are discovered when cancer has already spread.

Keywords: Ovarian Cancer, Malignancy, Risk Factors, Treatment, Health


Recent morphologic and molecular genetic research have shed light on our information of ovarian carcinogenesis in approaches that have been pretty sudden and feature challenged traditional awareness concerning their foundation and improvement. Indeed, they have led to a paradigm shift that has critical implications for research and substantially converting our tactics to early detection, prevention, and remedy [1].

Most ovarian cancers are regularly known as a “silent killer” because about 75% of sufferers are identified in the superior level of the ailment because of the absence of nonspecific medical signs at the start and the dearth of screening techniques for prognosis [2]. Up until now, the gold preferred withinside the prognosis of pelvic loads continues to be a bimanual gynecological exam supplemented through transvaginal sonography (with color Doppler) and serum markers (CA125, in the end, blended with HE4 and calculated ROMA). In a long time, many serologic biomarkers primarily based on tumor–host immunologic interactions (numerous cytokines and antibodies) have been evaluated withinside the prognosis of most ovarian cancers; however, up until now, none of them has been carried out to the overall exercise.


The ovaries are supplied with a greater diversity of tumors, each benign and malignant, than any different frame organ [3]. This might be due to the multicellular and converting nature of the ovaries, as organs with a feature of present process monthly cyclic modifications to put together one of the eggs (ova) withinside the ovaries for ability improvement into new tissues, i.e. a fetus. Not simplest does the ovary produce a sort of tumors starting from benign (the majority) to low-grade malignancy and notably malignant cancers, they'll additionally produce tumors that excrete hormones that could affect frame improvement and feature. Some ovarian cancers are germ-cell cancers now no longer in contrast to a few cancers of the testis.

Cancers of the ovary can be stable or cystic or they'll include an aggregate of stable and cystic elements. They generally tend to motive no signs early of their improvement and so they are regularly superior whilst first identified.

There isn't any regarded motive for ovarian cancers however there are a few genetic associations. The BRCA1 and BRCA2 tumor suppressor genes are regarded hazard elements and there may be now and then a robust own circle of relatives records of ovarian most cancers. These equal genes are extra normally recognized as hazard elements in premenopausal breast cancers and there may be an accelerated hazard of girls who've had breast cancers earlier than menopause to later increase ovarian cancers.


The conventional view of ovarian carcinogenesis has been that epithelial ovarian most cancers originate from the ovarian floor mesothelial epithelium, or coelomic epithelium [1]. This epithelium undergoes metaplasia to müllerian epithelium which, morphologically, resembles the epithelia of the fallopian tube, endometrium, gastrointestinal tract, endocervix, and urinary bladder. Ovulation ends in trapping of this metaplastic mesothelium withinside the ovary, forming inclusion cysts and, under conditions of incessant ovulation and an ongoing repetitive wound-healing procedure, this ends in neoplastic epithelial ovarian cancers. This principle is primarily based totally on the commentary that floor epithelial inclusion cysts are regularly discovered withinside the ovary. However, precursor lesions have been hardly ever discovered withinside the ovary.


Another principle suggests that epithelial ovarian most cancers originate from the “secondary müllerian system” [1]. This extrude principle proposes that tumors with a mullerian phenotype (serous, endometrioid) are derived from müllerian-kind tissue, and are now no longer from the mesothelium. This tissue, together with glands of endometriosis, endosalpingiosis, endocervicitis, and the rete ovarii, strains cysts placed withinside the para-tubal and para-ovarian locations. These cysts, in addition to endometriosis and another müllerian tissue placed out of doors of the müllerian system are collectively cited as the “secondary müllerian system”. According to this principle, ovarian tumors increase in those cysts, amplify and compress, and in the end obliterate everyday ovarian tissue, ensuing in an adnexal tumor that appears to have arisen from the ovary.

This principle is primarily based totally on the commentary that, morphologically, ovarian tumors of the serous, endometrioid, and clear cell subtypes resemble the müllerian epithelium, at the same time as the ovary itself is not always of müllerian foundation. However, precursor lesions resembling serous, endometrioid, and clean mobile carcinomas have hardly ever, if ever, been mentioned in para tubal and para-ovarian cysts.


Ovarian cancer is the deadliest of gynecological malignancies with about 49% of women surviving five years after the preliminary prognosis [4]. The preferred care for ovarian most cancers includes cytoreductive surgical operation observed through platinum-primarily based mixture chemotherapy. Unfortunately, regardless of preliminary reaction, platinum resistance stays a prime medical challenge. Therefore, the identity of powerful biomarkers and healing goals is essential to manual therapy routine, maximize medical benefit, and enhance affected person outcomes. Given the pivotal position of c-MYC deregulation in maximum tumor types, along with ovarian most cancers, evaluation of c-MYC organic and medical relevance is essential. Here, we in brief describe the frequency of c-MYC deregulation in ovarian most cancers and the effects of its targeting.

Ovarian cancer is the maximum deadly gynecologic malignancy with an envisioned 21,410 new instances and 13,770 deaths predicted for 2021 withinside the United States. According to the tissue of the foundation, ovarian tumors are categorized into epithelial and non-epithelial types. Tumors that get up from germ and intercourse twine stromal cells in the ovaries constitute ∼10% of ovarian cancers. Epithelial-derived ovarian tumors account for ∼90% of ovarian cancers and may be subdivided into 4 principal histological subtypes serous, endometrioid, clean-cell, and mucinous carcinomas. Of those types, high-grade serous tumors (HGSOC) are the maximum normally identified. Despite advances in surgical and healing options for ovarian most cancers, resistance to platinum-primarily based chemotherapy stays a prime medical challenge. Several mechanisms of platinum resistance were proposed, along with the altered expression of oncogenes together with c-MYC.

c-MYC turned into located 4 a long time in the past because of the human cell homolog of the avian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene (v-myc). Further research strongly connected c-MYC to most cancers, marking it as a bona fide human oncogene. Following the preliminary discovery of c-MYC, genomic amplification of extra human paralogs N-MYC and L-MYC have been diagnosed in neuroblastoma and small-cell lung cancers, respectively.


Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the 5th main motive of most cancer deaths in women [5]. The American Cancer Society estimates that 21,410 women withinside the United States can be identified with ovarian cancer (OC) and 13,770 girls will die of the ailment withinside 12 months in 2021. The excessive mortality charge in OC is essential because of late-level diagnoses due to non-unique early signs. Despite a robust preliminary reaction to remedy, maximum sufferers will increase recurrent tumors which can be regularly drug-resistant, ensuing in excessive mortality because of a loss of powerful remedies. With the improvement of “omics” technology, we've got won deeper information on most cancer mechanisms, which has brought about the improvement of a few individualized remedies. However, the mechanisms that power OC relapse and treatment plans to correctly postpone and in the long run save you from this relapse are still unknown.

Whole genome and transcriptome sequencing technology have enabled the correlation of personal genomic facts with ailment hazard elements and remedy prognoses. Numerous previous research has tested that there are gene expression and methylation profiles that correlate with OC aggressiveness and outcome, in addition to a massive variety of genes that showcase altered DNA methylation on this ailment. However, few research has applied matched number one and recurrent OCs. Surgical resection is now no longer the usual care for recurrent OC, so the “omics” technology that maintains promise for breakthroughs withinside the layout of individualized remedies is constrained because of negative get entry to recurrent OC tumor samples. The availability of an archived set of primary recurrent OC-paired tumors allowed us to higher apprehend how epigenetic-transcriptomic relationships alternate because the ailment progresses from preliminary prognosis to eventual recurrence.

The vast majority of malignant ovarian tumors are epithelial. Growing proof has tested that epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) can sell tumor metastasis, and invasion, in addition to chemotherapy resistance in OC. EMT is the procedure wherein epithelial cells end up mesenchymal thru a lack of their cell–cell adhesion ensuing in the acquisition of more desirable migration/invasion capabilities. Loss of cell-cell adhesion is an essential mechanistic component withinside the development of the number one EOC to metastatic ailment and eventual recurrence. Tight junctions are multiprotein complexes that feature altered cell-cell adhesion in epithelial and endothelial cells. OC cells generally tend to shape spheroids withinside the peritoneal hollow space of superior OC sufferers. Furthermore, spheroid formation and adhesion to the omentum play significant roles in OC recurrence and chemo-resistance. In sufferers dealing with OC, spheroid formation permits cells to face up to the consequences of chemotherapy, which contributes to eventual recurrence.


Endometrial cancer affords maximum normality in postmenopausal women [6]. Treatment consists of surgical operations, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a mixture of modalities. Ovarian cancers afford in premenopausal and postmenopausal women; surgical assessment and debulking are mostly step one in remedy, observed through a chemotherapy routine with a mixture of agents. Only with the appearance of chemotherapy for ovarian cancer has the formerly dismal analysis for this tumor advanced markedly. Studies of the long-time period implications of this illness for the survivor's sexual features have all started to appear. Compared with healthy controls, women with those cancers file decreased frequency of sexual behaviors, decrease tiers of arousal, accelerated occurrence of dyspareunia, and troubles with frame image.

Ovarian cancer-affected person faces the serial trauma of an extreme most cancers prognosis, principal pelvic surgical operation with resultant modifications to the vagina, a demanding chemotherapy routine, remedy-associated onset of menopause withinside the premenopausal affected person, and an entire lack of fertility. The psychological, physical, and hormonal effect of a sexual feature on this populace deserves, in addition, carefully take a look at.

Endometrial cancer-affected persons need to regularly cope with radiation modifications to the vagina and pelvis. Vaginal modifications encompass fibrosis with resultant shortening and narrowing; decreased elasticity of the vaginal wall; and faded lubrication, a growing excessive hazard of dyspareunia. The effects of radiation on the vagina can be averted or alleviated through the ordinary use of vaginal dilators and sexual consolation may be advanced through using suitable lubricants, vaginal moisturizers, and intercourse positions. A critical location for destiny inquiry is the implementation of affected person guide and schooling plans for women facing pelvic radiation, which might also additionally boom touch with health care companies and inspire essential affected person compliance with those techniques throughout the demanding months of remedy, specifically throughout the primary 12 months posttreatment, as radiation modifications evolve and convey bodily and dating distress.


Ovarian malignancies are uncommon in AYAs (adolescents or younger adults); it has been envisioned that the simplest 3–17 % of ovarian malignancies arise in girls more youthful than forty years of age [7]. There are fewer than sixteen instances in step with million women more youthful than 15 years of age, representing.

Young discovered that germ cell tumors accounted for 78 % of ovarian cancers in women more youthful than 15 years, 54 % of ovarian cancers in youth between 15 and 19 years, and much less than 50 % after age 20. Others have confirmed those findings, with germ-mobile tumors comprising 61–68 % of ovarian cancers withinside the AYA populace.

In girls with ovarian cancers over 15 years of age, the more youthful the affected person, the extra in all likelihood that the ailment is to be localized and consequently of an advanced level. This might also additionally mirror the tendency for germ cell tumors to be found in more youthful females, as those tumors tend to be detected at an advanced level. As the ailment kind shifts away from germ cell tumors with growing age, remote ailment at prognosis will increase with age. By age 40, a woman is similar in all likelihood to have remote metastases at prognosis as a localized ailment. As a result of younger girls having a favorable histologic subtype (GCTs) with an early level of prognosis, the analysis for AYA women with ovarian most cancers is higher than that for older ladies with ovarian most cancers. This is in contrast to the maximum different kinds of cancers, wherein older sufferers fare higher than AYA sufferers.


Cancer screening refers to routine, periodic checking out for signs of most cancers amongst people who've no signs [8]. It is the shape of secondary prevention. In the context of most cancer screening, secondary prevention intends to enhance results by shifting the level at prognosis to 1 this is much less superior and deleterious, relative to what takes place withinside the absence of most cancer screening.

Cancer screening is a sorting procedure. Screenees are taken care of into groups: people with a bad check and people with a high-quality check. A bad check does not have anything suspicious for most cancers and does now no longer require extra clinical attention. A high-quality check is famous for something this is suspicious for most cancers or with unknown significance concerning most cancers; it calls for extra clinical attention, cited as a diagnostic assessment. That procedure is supposed to definitively determine whether or not most cancers are or aren't always present, however, exercise can vary from active surveillance to the elimination of an abnormality. Active surveillance (now and then known as watchful waiting) refers to an agenda of minimally- or non-invasive checking out to display for clinically critical modifications. Resection of an abnormality is taken into consideration through diagnostic assessment instead of remedy if a definitive prognosis has now no longer been made or can't be made otherwise.

Cancer screening isn't always supposed in and of itself to offer a definitive prognosis. Its reason is to pick out extraordinary clinical situations, together with growths, occult blood, or a biomarker that could advocate most cancers. Cancer screening pursuits to cause the detection of cancers whose analysis will enhance with advanced detection, and it desires to cause the detection of sufficient of these cancers to make screening a profitable public health activity. Cancer screening is neither supposed to neither is capable of causing the detection of each most cancers, because the natural records of most cancers are erratic, technology has limitations, and common screening is impractical.


Cancer prevention screening can be of cost if a few precancers detected thru most cancers screening might end up invasive and in the long run deadly to most cancers withinside the absence of most cancers screening [8]. Detection of a precancer that doesn't meet that designation represents overdiagnosis. The definition of overdiagnosis may be modified barely to be inclusive: screen-detected precancer or invasive most cancers that by no means might were identified, both as precancer or invasive most cancers, withinside the absence of most cancers screening.

The overarching intention of each early detection most cancers screening and most cancers prevention screening is to lessen motive-specific mortality. We must now no longer, however, expect that most cancer prevention screening is simply early detection of most cancers screening at a completely early level and that the benefits might be extra good sized and harms much less good sized than detection at a later level. Precancer, at the time of detection, isn't always lifestyles-threatening because it can't metastasize. Advances in the era have brought about the detection of increasingly more precancerous abnormalities with unsure medical relevance, and growing quandaries for clinicians and sufferers. It is almost sure that overdiagnosis is extra general in most cancer prevention screening as compared with early detection of most cancers screening. Even so, the remedy for precancers can be much less arduous than the remedy for invasive cancers.


Dietary elements were stated to be one of the fundamental contributing hazard elements for most cancers, specifically colon, breast, and prostate cancers [9]. Up to one-third of cancers in Western nations were envisioned to be related to nutritional elements. The percentage of most cancers instances because of unique nutrition-associated hazard elements have been envisioned to be obesity (8%), excess alcohol (6%), low fruit and vegetable consumption (2%), low fiber consumption (1%), and processed meat consumption (1%), with decrease contributions from beef and low calcium consumption.

Alcohol consumption is certainly considered one among many modifiable nutritional elements that have been related to most cancers hazard. The definition of an alcoholic beverage is 12 oz of beer, five oz of wine, or 1.5 oz of distilled spirits. There is proof that heavy drinkers (multiple drinks/day for women or drinks/day for men) have an appreciably accelerated hazard for mouth, larynx, esophagus, liver, and breast cancers. In one take look, heavy drinkers had a 15% boom of lung most cancers hazard in assessment to occasional drinkers or individuals who did now no longer devour any alcohol. Two-thirds of adults withinside the United States file exceeding the mild quantity at least as soon as in step with month.

Fruits and vegetables pose many health advantages in terms of stopping ailments and preserving overall health. High fruit and vegetable consumption has been related to a decreased hazard of lung, colorectal, breast, esophageal, stomach, pancreatic, uterine, cervical, and ovarian cancers. Cruciferous vegetables, for example, include phytochemicals that can be conceived to lessen colorectal most cancers hazard. In one take look at assessing the connection between fruit and vegetable consumption and the onset of colorectal most cancers, however, there has been a statistically significant affiliation among the reduced hazard of general colorectal adenomas simplest in individuals who had better consumption of result, however now no longer vegetables. Those authors cautioned that the fiber found in the result can be shielding against colorectal adenoma and in the long run guard against colorectal cancers. Antioxidant vitamins in results and vegetables along with vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium, carotenoids, and different phytochemicals additionally guard against tissue harm from oxidative stress. However, numerous trials of antioxidant dietary supplements did now no longer show protection, demonstrating that it's miles critical to attaining those vitamins in their herbal mixtures in the meals matrix.


The best remedy for ovarian most cancers, specifically if now no longer superior, is through general surgical elimination of the ovaries and fallopian tubes. Because the alternative ovary and different pelvic organs will also be the web website online of most cancers, it's miles normal to put off each ovary in addition to the uterus and tubes and other worried tissue [3]. However in a younger woman with early and localized ovarian cancers, now and then one ovary may be spared. The operation is now and then observed through radiotherapy to the pelvis or chemotherapy. If most cancers are superior chemotherapy and radiotherapy can be used collectively with appropriate effect. Even if most cancers can't be removed, outcomes are higher if the tumor is “debulked”, this is, as a great deal of most cancers as feasible is removed. The affected person is regularly then dealt with through radiotherapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy after surgical elimination additionally improves survival rates.

Chemotherapy is regularly powerful in controlling full-size metastases for a profitable period (in all likelihood a few years) however long-time period remedy is unlikely.

Combinations of nearby chemotherapy (intra-arterial infusion and/or intraperitoneal) with radiotherapy and/or surgical operation, currently below take a look at a few unique clinics however it isn't always sure whether or not those strategies of incorporated remedy will obtain appreciably higher outcomes with safety.

Studies also are being performed on using pre-operative chemotherapy given as an induction remedy to lessen regionally superior cancers. The surgical operation that follows is then optimistically much more likely to be healing however even supposing it isn't always healing “debulking” most cancers mass through disposing of a maximum of the residual cancers does enhance the affected person’s first-class lifestyles for an extended period. In a few clinics, in which suitable centers are available, pre-operative induction chemotherapy is given through intra-arterial infusion with more attention and reputedly more nearby tumor effect. To date, outcomes have been encouraging however long-term outcomes of medical trials are awaited with interest.


Ovarian cancer accounts for only 4% of all cancers in women, but it ranks second in frequency and first in mortality among all gynecological tumors. More than half of women diagnosed with ovarian cancer are menopausal women over the age of 60. Despite this, ovarian cancer can also occur in younger women, when tumors of the germinal epithelium and tumors of germ cells and stroma are more common. In the treatment of ovarian cancer, surgical therapy, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy are used. Depending on the degree of the disease, they are used separately or individual forms of treatment are combined. The basic form of treatment is the surgical removal of the uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries, as well as the largest possible removal of tumor masses.


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