Mathews Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics


Current Issue Volume 8, Issue 1 - 2024

Bartholin's Gland is an Important Part of the Female Reproductive System

Siniša Franjić*

Independent Researcher, Croatia

*Corresponding author: Siniša Franjić, Independent Researcher, Croatia, E-mail: [email protected]

Received Date: March 15, 2024

Published Date: April 16, 2024

Citation: Franjić S. (2024). Bartholin's Gland is an Important Part of the Female Reproductive System. Mathews J Gynecol Obstet. 8(1):34.

Copyrights: Franjić S. © (2024).


Bartholin's gland is a gland located under the labia minora near the opening of the vagina. Its size corresponds to the size of a pea, and under normal conditions it cannot be felt with the fingers. Bartholin's gland produces mucus whose role is to protect the sensitive area of the vulva during intercourse. Bartholin's gland is an important part of the female reproductive system. Since it is intangible under normal circumstances, many women are unaware of its existence.

Keywords: Bartholin's Gland, Vagina, Vulva, Bartholin's Cyst, Health.


The Bartholin's glands are arranged somewhat underneath and to the cleared out and right of the opening of the vagina [1]. As the female gets to be sexually stirred, these organs emit grease within the frame of bodily fluid; it is recommended that this will encourage intercourse and permits for sexual incitement, but the precise reason isn't completely caught on. The discharges are known to contain pheromones; these are chemicals that can trigger a normal behavioral reaction in another individual. Ordinarily, Bartholin's glands cannot be felt (palpated); be that as it may, within the occasion of hindrance, sore arrangement can happen and the cysts may ended up tainted, coming about in sore arrangement. It must be famous that not all Bartholin's cysts are the result of an infection.

An contamination may happen in one or both Bartholin glands, coming about in swelling and/or abscess arrangement [2]. Ordinarily, the method is one-sided and checked by pain and swelling. Systemic indications are negligible but in progressed cases. 2% of adult women create disease or extension of one or both Bartholin glands. Abscesses are nearly three times more common than sores. Of all Bartholin gland contaminations, 85% happen amid the regenerative a long time.


Vagina is the strong canal driving to the entrance of the female regenerative framework [3]. The external dividers of the front and back vagina are shaped into longitudinal columns, or edges, and the prevalent portion of the vagina-called the fornix-meets the projecting uterine cervix. The dividers of the vagina are lined with an external, stringy adventitia; a center layer of smooth muscle; and an internal mucous membrane with transverse folds called rugae. Together, the center and internal layers permit the extension of the vagina to oblige intercut and childbirth. The lean, punctured hymen can in part encompass the opening to the vaginal opening. The hymen can be cracked with strenuous physical workouts, penile-vaginal intercut, and childbirth. The Bartholin-s glands and the lesser vestibular glands (found close the clitoris) emit bodily fluid, which keeps the vestibular range wet. The vagina is domestic to a typical population of microorganisms that offer assistance to secure against infection by pathogenic bacteria, yeast, or other organisms that can enter the vagina. In a healthy woman, the foremost overwhelming sort of vaginal microscopic organisms is from the genus Lactobacillus. This family of advantageous bacterial flora secretes lactic acid, and in this way secures the vagina by keeping up an acidic pH. Potential pathogens are less likely to outlive in these acidic conditions. Lactic corrosive, in combination with other vaginal emissions, makes the vagina a self-cleansing organ. In any case, douching-or washing out the vagina with fluid-can disturb the typical adjust of healthy microorganisms, and really increment a woman's chance for infections and irritation. Without a doubt, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists suggest that women don't douche, which they permit the vagina to preserve its typical solid populace of defensive microbial flora.


The vulva is the range of the perineum comprising the mons pubis, labia majora and minora and the opening into both the vagina and urethra [4]. The labia majora are zones of skin with basic fat pads which bound the vagina. Average to these are the labia minora, which comprise of vascular tissue that engorges with blood during sexual arousal. Anteriorly they come together to form the prepuce of the clitoris and posteriorly they shape the fourchette. The hymen could be a crease of mucosa at the entrance to the vagina. It more often than not encompasses a little opening in virgins and is as it were seen as a sporadic leftover in sexually dynamic ladies. To each side of the introitus are the channels of the vestibular organs commonly known as Bartholin's glands, which deliver much of the oil during sexual intercourse.

The vulval blood supply comes from the pudendal supply route and lymphatic waste is through the inguinal lymph nodes. The nerve supply comes generally from the pudendal nerve and pelvic plexus, with branches of the perineal nerves and the back cutaneous nerve of the thigh critical within the posterior region.


The vestibule is an oval zone encased by the labia minora along the side [5]. It is the interior the labia minora and exterior of the hymen and is punctured by six openings. Opening into the vestibule are the urethra from the urinary bladder, the vagina, and two sets of organs. The opening to the vagina is called the introitus, and the half-moon-shaped region behind the opening is called the fourchette. Through modest channels close to the introitus, Bartholin's organs, when invigorated, emit bodily fluid that supplies lubrication for intercut. Skene's organs are found on either side of the opening to the urethra. They emit a small sum of bodily fluid to keep the opening moist and lubricated for the section of urine.

The vaginal opening is encompassed by the hymen (maidenhead). The hymen could be an extreme, flexible, perforated, mucosa-covered tissue over the vaginal introitus. In a virgin, the hymen may cover the opening, but it usually encircles the opening like a tight ring. Since the degree of tightness varies among women, the hymen may tear at the primary endeavor at intercut, or it may be so delicate and pliable that no tearing happens. In a lady who isn't a virgin, the hymen more often than not shows up as little labels of tissue encompassing the vaginal opening, but the nearness or nonappearance of the hymen can not one or the other affirm nor run the show out sexual experience.


The area of the vestibule is bordered by the labia minora laterally, by the frenulum labiorum pudendi (or posterior commissure) posteriorly, and by the urethra and clitoris anteriorly [6]. Inferiorly, it is bordered by the hymenal ring. The opening of the vagina or intersection of the vagina with the vestibule is constrained by a layer extending from the back and sidelong sides to the second-rate surface of the outside urethral orifice. This layer is named the hymen. Its shape and openings shift and depend on age, equality, and sexual involvement. The shape of the opening may be puerile, annular, semilunar, cribriform, septate, or vertical; the hymen may indeed be imperforate. In parous ladies and within the postcoital state, the labels of the hymenal integument are named carunculae myrtiformes.

The outside urethral hole, which is roughly 2-3 cm back to the clitoris, on a marginally raised and sporadic surface with discouraged zones on the sides, may show up to be stellate or crescentic in shape. It is characterized by numerous little mucosal folds around its opening. Reciprocally and on the surface are the holes of the paraurethral and periurethral organs (ductus paraurethrales [ducts of Skene and Astruc]).

At roughly the 5 and 7 o-clock positions, fair outside to the hymenal rings, are 2 little papular rises that speak to the holes of the conduits of the glandulae vestibulares majores or bigger vestibular organs (Bartholin) of the female (bulbourethral organ of the male). The fossa navicularis lies between the frenulum labiorum pudendi and the hymenal ring. The skin encompassing the vestibule is stratified squamous in sort, with a scarcity of rete pegs and papillae.

The glandulae vestibulares majores (bigger vestibular glands or Bartholin glands) have a conduit measuring around 5 mm in distance across. The organ itself lies fair second rate and horizontal to the bulbocavernosus muscle. The gland is tubular and alveolar in character, with a lean capsule and connective tissue septa partitioning it into lobules in which periodic smooth muscle strands are found. The epithelium is cuboid to columnar and pale in color, with the cytoplasm containing mucigen beads and colloid spherules with acidophilic incorporations. The epithelium of the channel is basic in sort, and its orifice is stratified squamous just like the vestibule. The emission may be a clear, viscid, and stringy mucoid substance with an soluble pH. Secretion is dynamic during sexual activity.

The more prominent vestibular organ is homologous to the bulbourethral organ (also known as Cowper's glands, Duverney's glands, Tiedemann's glands, or the Bartholin glands of the male). In the event that the opening to the organ gets to be clogged, at that point a agonizing Bartholinp's cyst can create.

The arterial supply to the more prominent vestibular gland comes from a little department of the course on the bulbocavernosus muscle, entering profound into its substance. Venous drainage coincides with the drainage of the bulbocavernosus body. The lymphatics deplete straightforwardly into the lymphatics of the vestibular plexus, having get to to the back vaginal divider along the second rate hemorrhoidal channels. They moreover deplete through the perineum into the inguinal zone. Most of this minor waste is along the pudendal vessels within the canalis pudendalis and clarifies, in portion, the trouble in managing with cancer including the organ. The innervation of the more prominent vestibular gland is from a little department of the perineal nerve, which enters specifically into its substance.


Contamination by Neisseria gonorrhoeae (80%), secondary infection by other organisms (eg, Escherichia coli) [2]. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is developing as a more common infectious agent.


Cystic, excruciating swelling of the labia within the range of the Bartholin organ (at 5 and 7 o'clock positions on the vulva) creating quickly over 2-4 days; the measure of cysts degree 3-6 cm but can develop to >8 cm [2]. The sore will be warm with overlying erythema and induration. Fever and malaise (20% of patients).


  • Cellulitis [2]
  • Necrotizing fasciitis
  • Mesonephric cysts of the vagina
  • Lipomas
  • Fibromas
  • Hernias
  • Hydrocele
  • Epidermal inclusion or sebaceous cyst
  • Bartholin gland malignancy (rare)
  • Neurofibroma
  • Kaposi sarcoma (generally associated with immunocompromise)
  • Dyspareunia


The Bartholin's glands are found respectively on the posterior-lateral angle of the vaginal orifice [7]. They are mucus-secreting glands with channels that open fair outside to the hymenal ring. Obstruction of these conduits leads to cystic enlargement of the Bartholin's duct, while the organ itself is unaltered. In the event that the sore remains little (1 to 2 cm) and is asymptomatic, it can be cleared out untreated and will frequently resolve on its claim or with sitz showers. When a Bartholin's duct blister to begin with presents in a woman more seasoned than 40 a long time, a biopsy ought to be performed to run the show out the uncommon plausibility of Bartholin's gland carcinoma.

In spite of the fact that numerous Bartholin's cysts will resolve with minimal treatment, a few blisters can ended up very expansive and cause weight side effects such as neighborhood torment, dyspareunia, and trouble walking. On the off chance that these cysts don't resolve, they can ended up contaminated and lead to a Bartholin's gland abscess. These abscesses are the result of polymicrobial infections, but they are too sometimes related with sexually transmitted infections. These abscesses can gotten to be very expansive, causing lovely torment and delicacy and related cellulitis. Bartholin's abscesses or symptomatic cysts should be treated like several other abscess: by cut and waste. Be that as it may, straightforward cuts and waste can regularly lead to repeat; in this manner, one of the two strategies can be utilized.

A Bartholin's cyst is shaped when the conduit from the Bartholin's gland to the vaginal opening gets to be blocked, causing a fluid-filled sore to create [8]. Contamination of the conduit and/or organ comes about in a Bartholin's abscess. Bartholin's cysts are most likely to happen in women of child-bearing age and can develop from the measure of a pea to the measure of a golf ball. This can be ordinarily smooth and well limited but when tainted, there may be encompassing oedema and induration. Marsupialization is more viable than basic cut and drainage for cysts and abscesses because it permits the organ to deplete and decreases the chance of repeat. A cruciate cut is performed over the dome of the abscess, the depth drained and the wound edges are sutured separated to ensure drainage. An elective strategy is to embed a balloon catheter beneath the neighborhood anaesthetic. The catheter remains in put employing a saline-filled balloon, more often than not for up to 4 weeks. Usually to permit epithelialization of the tract, after which it is flattened and evacuated on the off chance that it has not fallen out suddenly. This method is prescribed by a Nice review which recognized from a little number of case arrangement that addition is nearly continuously effective, most ladies discover this method worthy and the repeat rate is 3-17 per cent [C] indeed in case the catheter falls out in a shorter time [D].


The Bartholins, or greater vestibular glands, are combined vulvar glands measuring around 0.5 cm in width, with a 2.5 cm conduit that opens onto the vestibule at the 4 and 8 o'clock positions between the hymen and the labia minora[9]. These organs deliver exceptionally little sums of bodily fluid, which gives a few moisture to the vulva but isn't basic for sexual functioning. Unless infected, the glands are not discernable and the ductal hole isn't ordinarily visualized. The conduits, in any case, are inclined to obstacle at their distal conclusion due to the little estimate of the opening. This obstacle in turn leads to cystic enlargement of the channel. A Bartholin's abscess may emerge from an optionally contaminated Bartholin's cyst or, as with this patient, as an essential disease of the gland and conduit. Continuous involution of the glands happens with age; hence, a sore or abscess in a woman aged over 40 ought to raise the doubt of possible cancer and warrant advance examination within the form of a biopsy or excisional strategy, especially on the off chance that there is an obsession of the gland to the underlying tissues.

The conclusion of a Bartholin's abscess is generally made by physical examination with the finding of an awfully tender, fluctuant mass at the lower aspect of the labia majora. The estimate of abscesses changes, but they may measure up to around 8 cm. The differential diagnosis incorporates vulvar abscesses, infected sebaceous cysts, hematomas, fibromas, lipomas, or hydradenitis suppurativa. A Bartholin's abscess is ordinarily a polymicrobial infection. The more unmistakable living beings refined are Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus faecalis, Bacteroides sp., Peptostreptococcus sp., Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Chlamydia trachomatis.


In spite of the fact that the frequency of Bartholin gland carcinoma is low, a firm or settled vulvar mass in

the Bartholin gland region, ought to be biopsied and is suspicious for harm [10]. Vulvar carcinoma regularly presents as a easy vulvar mass. It is prescribed that ladies with Paget's disease or those who are 40 years old or more noteworthy experience this assessment.

The Bartholin glands, also known as the more noteworthy vestibular glands, are usually 0.5 cm in measure and lie 15 mm underneath the surface of the vestibule. To supply anatomic relationship reference focuses, at the 6 o'clock position, the rectum is 3-4 mm underneath the vagina and at the 12 o'clock position the urethra is 2-3 mm front to the vagina. The channel is around 2 cm in length and empties into a groove between the hymen and the labia minorum.

Information of the organ and channel life structures is valuable when performing the biopsy. Excisional biopsy gives histologic assessment with the extra good thing about decreased morbidity, decreased discomfort, and expanded convenience of an in-office treatment for the understanding. During the acute inflammatory stage, the distinction between ductal and glandular tissue is troublesome to recognize. Earlier to Word catheter arrangement, get a handle on the glandular tissue with forceps and extract a little sum of tissue. In the event that in doubt, measure the profundity (it ought to be at slightest 1.5 cm) of the duct cavity, with a pre-measured sterile direct to guarantee you're within the rectify glandular region earlier to any excisional biopsy. Put the biopsy in a labeled surgical pathology holder. Guarantee hemostasis by either applying pressure or on the off chance that essential, put a little hemostatic suture or sparingly apply silver nitrate.

The most drawback to this strategy is that a secondary excisional method may be essential and the quiet may still be at hazard for post-procedural complications.


Carcinoma of Bartholin's gland accounts for approximately 1% of vulvar cancers and, in spite of the fact that rare, is the foremost common location for vulvar adenocarcinoma [11]. Approximately 50% of Bartholin's gland tumors are squamous cell carcinomas. Other sorts of tumors emerging within Bartholin's glands are adenocarcinoma, adenoid cystic, adenosquamous, and transitional cell carcinomas.

Because the inflammatory disease of the Bartholin's gland is unprecedented after age 40, older women with a mass in this area undergo a biopsy to run the show out cancer. Since of its area is deep within the substance of the labium, a tumor may impinge on the rectum and specifically spread into the ischiorectal fossa. Subsequently, these tumors have get to to lymphatic channels depleting straightforwardly to the deep pelvic lymph nodes as well as to the superficial channels draining to the inguinal lymph nodes.


Bartholin's gland is part of the female reproductive system. While some women have never heard of it, many of them have various uncomfortable experiences with inflammation. Changes that can affect this gland can be painful and unpleasant and can cause concern, which is why it is often necessary to seek the help of a gynecologist.




Author declares that there is no conflicts of interest.


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